Daddy Long Legs – Shacklewell Arms – 21/05/2015

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I’d already seen Daddy Long Legs at The Shacklewell Arms a year or two ago courtesy of Dirty Water Records bringing them over and they were absolutely fantastic back then. I can also happily say that they are just as fantastic now as they were last time. The band played an absolutely storming set, pulsating with such energy and intensity, it felt like paint was being stripped off the walls every time that piercing harmonica pummelled my ears.

So many bands could take lessons from Daddy Long Legs in my opinion, as just three members managed to create a wall of ferocious sound, and deliver a stage show that hit like a tornado. They somehow accomplished this without a bass or cymbals on their drum kit, resulting in a primal and relentless beat topped with a fantastic overdriven blues sound.

Although a lot of their song structures and overall feel would probably place them in the roots music camp, it is their fire and intensity that make a band like Daddy Long Legs an essential group on the music scene today. When the band do decide to tone it down, numbers such as title track of their second album “Blood From A Stone” still engage the audience and result in a frenzied reaction when the dynamics are shifted back up again on tracks like “Motorcycle Madness” and “Evil Eye”, which you can see performed at The Shacklewell Arms below.

My only criticism is that they didn’t play “Sittin’ Shotgun” which is my personal favourite from the debut album “Daddy Long Legs” on Norton Records. Apart from that, I was bowled over by the show once again, especially on “Chains-A-Rattlin'”, where the drummer came forward with just the floor tom and preceded to beat it mercilessly at the front of the stage. A far superior and more lively take on the track in comparison to how it is recorded on their second full length record.

A band that is an absolute must-see next time they’re in a town near you!

Score: 9/10

UK Tour – February – March 2015

Introduction

In order to measure the success of the support tour, I set out on the task of booking a follow up headline tour every city The Caezars supported Imelda in (and a few other local shows that would hopefully be well attended). These gigs were booked in venues of 100-300 capacity and took place between the 5th of February and 14th of March 2015 and were promoted through tour flyers, and local promoters coming to the shows with Imelda May to raise awareness. This was an idea suggested by Imelda May when the band supported her at the Kentish Town Forum in 2011 as it was one of the ways she rose to success after touring with Jools Holland (Costa, 2011). The tour took a month to book in and was promoted through social media and appearances on specialist internet radio shows like Steve Stack of Wax’s Wednesday Night Rockin’ Party (Mixcloud, 2015) as well as posting flyers in the towns and cities the band were performing in.

Hail Caezar Tour Poster 2015

Posters and flyers were put up in the venues themselves, but also in vintage clothing shops (LOOT, Brighton (Facebook, 2015), Beatnik Emporium (2015) Southampton, The Vintage Collection London (Facebook, 2015) and independent record stores, Sounds That Swing (No Hit Records, 2015) London, Vinyl Tap (2015) Huddersfield, Pie & Vinyl (2015) Portsmouth. This ensured that they were reaching people interested in live music and vintage style/aesthetics who are part of The Caezars target audience. Reynolds believes the importance of specialised promotion for live music events is down to the fact that “The fickleness of the concert-going public should never be underestimated” (Reynolds, 2012, p. 17) and is why I enlisted the help of genre specific promoters such as “Make With The Shake” and “Go-Go Gorilla” for the geographically relevant shows.

Before embarking on the February 2015 tour, The Caezars recorded a new single to be released on 7” vinyl and digital download in time for the tour in February. The physical 7” single will be available for pre-order on the Bandcamp page and the digital audio track will be made available to listen to on the bands Soundcloud page. Soundcloud is where music is posted before it appears on Spotify or iTunes or anywhere else (Horn, 2014) because, as its CEO Erik Wahlforss (2014) told Gizmodo; “Soundcloud is where music culture happens on the web”.  The digital audio files  will also be made available on iTunes and Spotify upon the release date via the aggregator service Zimbalam (2015), as iTunes and Spotify do not work directly with artists to receive works. This releasing strategy will help rectify the errors made on the last tour whilst still servicing fans in a way that is simple, efficient and appropriate. Vinyl sales grew by 54.7% in 2014 and although the format only accounts for 2% of global revenues, it has an appeal that matches the bands current demographic (IFPI 2015).

The Results

The follow-up tour was a success and over 15 shows over 6 weeks the average attendance was 103 people with the highest being a sold-out 200 capacity show in Cornwall. To date the new single has been receiving radio play on genre specific online radio shows such as “Frockabilly” on Radio Reverb (2015) and “Get on The Right Track” on Rockabilly Radio (Rockabilly Duke Box, 2015). Ben Kirby (cited Reynolds, 2012 p.8), manager of The Subways, believes that continuing this level of touring is essential in the 21st century; “there’s such a fast turnover of acts these days, and it’s vital to gig your arse off and build a solid fan base that will still be there in 5 years time”.

Perhaps the way to grow and move forward is by trying to seek out a label services type deal for the next album, in order to fully distribute and promote the release. Especially when considering Passman’s (2012) theory; “for a record deal to make sense, the record company has to generate more money for you (after they take their piece) than you would get by selling less product on your own”. 

It has also led to the belief that one of the ways to survive as a niche independent artist is to follow the examples of The Wave Pictures (2015) and Bob Log III (2015), who are constantly on the road playing shows, earning money without the press and marketing campaigns of major record labels. Fabbri (1980) stated that “Every genre is defined by a community of varying structure which accepts the rules and whose members participate in various forms during the course of a musical event.” Performing on the Rockabilly scene is no different, with fans attention not only placed on the music but the lifestyle choice as a whole that includes the fashion, automobiles, and even the relevant furniture. The internet has enabled niche bands to tour specifically to their audiences on the relevant scenes. This means that the need to make the right noise in-front of the right people that is more interesting than that of our peers has never been so vital.

Reference List:

10ccfans (2014) 10ccfans’s Contributions. Available at: http://reviews.ticketmaster.co.uk/7171-en_gb/172427849/profile.htm (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Baker, T. (2013) ‘Free Crisps and Water: on the support act trail with Neighbourhood’. Interview with Tom Baker. Interview by Michael Hann for The Guardian, 10th March. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/mar/10/neighbourhood-support-act-trail (Accessed: 28/01/15).

Bandcamp (2015) Bandcamp for artists. Available at: http://bandcamp.com/artists (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Beatnik Emporium (2015) The Beatnik Emporium Available at: http://www.beatnikemporium.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Bob Log III (2015) Gigs Available at: www.boblog111.com (Accessed: 29/01/15).

BPI (2015) Certified Awards – Search by Parameter. Available at: http://www.bpi.co.uk/certified-awards/search.aspx (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Bylin, K (2010) PledgeMusic starts record label, signs first band. Available at: http://www.hypebot.com/hypebot/2010/12/pledgemusic-starts-record-label-signs-first-band.html (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Costa M (2011) Imelda May: Don’t Step on my Red Suede Shows. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/music/2011/feb/03/imelda-may-rockabilly-revival (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Fabbri, F. (1980) ‘A Theory Of Music Genres: Two Applications’, The First International Conference On Popular Music Studies, Amsterdam, 1980. Goteberg and Exeter Publishing. Available at: http://www.tagg.org/xpdfs/ffabbri81a.pdf (Accessed: 11/04/15).

Facebook (2015) Loot Clothing Brighton. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Loot-Clothing/173342206024019 (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Facebook (2015) The Vintage Collection Available at: https://www.facebook.com/thevintagecollectionlondon?fref=ts (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Gravelle, A (2014) Imelda May @ Shepherd’s Bush London 24/11/14. Available at: http://decibelleuk.com/live-reviews/imelda-may-shepherds-bush-empire-london-24112014/(Accessed: 31/01/15).

Harrison, A. (2014) Music: the Business: Fully Revised and Updated, Including the Latest Changes to Copyright Law. United Kingdom: Virgin Books.

Houghton, B. (2014) Don’t Ignore your e-mail list says fan engagement expert. Available at: http://www.hypebot.com/hypebot/2014/05/dont-ignore-your-email-list-say-fan-engagement-experts.html (Accessed: 23/04/15).

Horn, L. (2014) How Soundcloud Changed Music Forever. Available at: http://gizmodo.com/how-soundcloud-changed-music-forever-1588811594 (Accessed: 23/04/15).

Hultsfred Hayride (2015) Hultsfred Hayride. Available at: http://www.hayride.se/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

IFPI (2015) ‘IFPI Digital Music Report 2015”. Available at: http://www.ifpi.com/downloads/Digital-Music-Report-2015.pdf (Accessed: 14/04/15).

Imelda May (2015) Imelda May. Available at: http://imeldamay.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Information Is Beautiful (2015) Selling Out How Much Do Music Artists Earn Online. Available at: http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/how-much-do-music-artists-earn-online-2015-remix/ (Accessed: 16/04/15).

Kiernen, K. (2014) ‘The Great Escape 2014: Building a Fan Business’ [Lecture to The Great Escape Festival, Brighton, 2014]. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/cmu/tge2014-building-a-fan-business-kevin-kiernan (Accessed: 24/04/2015).

Lindevall, H. (2008) Counting The Cost Of Touring. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/music/musicblog/2008/jun/11/costoftouring(Accessed: 31/01/15).

Mixcloud (2015) Steve Stack Of Wax. Available at: https://www.mixcloud.com/stevestackofwax/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Musicweek (2010) Band Guns Down the airplay delay. Available at: http://www.musicweek.com/news/read/band-guns-down-the-airplay-delay/042283 (Accessed: 29/01/15).

No Hit Records (2015) Sounds That Swing Available at: http://www.nohitrecords.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

O2 (2015) O2 Academy Venues. Available at: http://www.o2.co.uk/abouto2/sponsorship/o2-academy-venues (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Offical Charts Company (2015) Offical Albums Chart Results Matching Annabel Dream Reader Available at: http://www.officialcharts.com/search/albums/ANNABEL%20DREAM%20READER/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Pakinkis, T. (2014) Lyor Cohen’s 300 Partners with Twitter. Available at: http://www.musicweek.com/news/read/lyor-cohen-s-300-partners-with-twitter/057495 (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Pie & Vinyl (2015) Pie & Vinyl Available at: http://www.pieandvinyl.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Pledge Music (2015) Why Pledge Music?. Available at: https://www.pledgemusic.com/artists/sign_up (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Radio Reverb (2015) Frockabilly Available at: http://www.radioreverb.com/shows/Frockabilly (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Reynolds, A. (2012) The tour book: how to get your music on the road. 2nd edn. Boston, MA: Delmar Cengage Learning.

Rockabilly Duke Box (2015) Get On The Right Track Available at: http://rockabillydukebox.blogspot.co.uk/2015/02/get-on-right-track.html (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Rockabilly Rave (2015) The Rockabilly Rave. Available at: http://www.rockabillyrave.co.uk/index.html(Accessed: 29/01/15).

Rogers, B. (2013) ‘Benji Rogers from Pledge Music @ Austin Tech Talk SXSW 2013’. Interview with Benji Rogers. Interview by David Hayes for Austin Tech Talk, 12th March. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQUDDumyawM (Accessed: 15/04/15).

Smith, D (2015) ‘A Sound Engineers Perspective’. Interview with Darren Smith. Interview by Ken Garff for Ken Garff Automotive Group, 22nd March. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3vH-5w47qM(Accessed: 28/03/15).

The Caezars (2015) The Caezars.com. Available at: http://www.thecaezars.com/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

The Wave Pictures (2015) Gigs Available at: http://thewavepictures.com/webpages/gigs.htm(Accessed: 29/01/15).

The Wytches (2015) Wytches Available at: http://www.thewytches.com/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Ticketmaster (2015) Ticketmaster. Available at: http://www.ticketmaster.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Viva Las Vegas (2015) Viva Las Vegas. Available at: http://www.vivalasvegas.net/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Vinyl Tap (2015) The Vinyl Tap Available at: https://www.vinyltap.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

White, E. (2014) Why (not) Bandcamp. Available at: http://hypebot.com/hypebot/2014/11/why-not-bandcamp.html (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Zimbalam (2015) Distribution Available at: http://www.zimbalam.co.uk/distribution (Accessed: 29/01/15).

UK Tour – November – December 2014

Introduction

This piece will focus on the experiences gained whilst touring and booking shows in 2014 with UK based garage-rock/rockabilly band, The Caezars (2015). At the time, the band were in their fifth year, had released two studio albums, and had attracted underground radio play and press attention globally. They had also headlined many large genre-specific Rockabilly festivals throughout the world including The Rockabilly Rave (UK) (2015), Viva Las Vegas (USA) (2015) and The Hultsfred Hayride (SE) (2015) yet were unsigned to a record label. The band had now secured a supporting slot on tour with Imelda May (2015) a more commercially successful artist in a similar genre, in 1,500 to 3,000 capacity venues*. The successes and failures of this tour will be critically analysed in order to identify areas of improvement for the future and to assess the impact the tour had on the band.

AA UK & EU Nov & December tour 2014

The Tour

The bulk of the tours shows were secured through The Caezars forming a good relationship with Imelda May (Universal Records, 2 Gold albums) (BPI 2015) throughout the bands career and took place between November 14th and December 13th 2014*. Other shows included on tour were smaller, self-booked headline shows and a main support show with Adam Ant on November 23rd* as part of his tour celebrating the Gold Certified album, “Dirk Wears White Sox” (BPI 2015). Tom Baker (2013) of Eat Your Own Ears, states the importance of support shows; “If you get bands that work really well alongside the headline, it will create a whole new scene. It’s really exciting when things like that happen.”

One of the main issues that arose on the tour was that certain venues were charging a 25% + VAT commission on the sale of merchandise. This resulted in a drop in sales at The Leeds & Sheffield Academies, and London Shepherd’s Bush Empire, all owned by the telecommunications brand O2 (2015). At other venues such as The Cambridge Corn Exchange & Sage Gateshead, this was negotiable, as it was deemed unfair for the support act to be charged a sales commission if we were selling the merchandise ourselves**.

The reason for this 25% charge is the increased importance of merchandise sales to artist’s income in the 21st century. Therefore, venues can charge the act for the privilege of selling items at their venue (Lindevall, 2008). The value of merchandise can further be seen with artists such Young Guns, who turned down the chance to sign to major record labels and opted for a deal with PIAS, a label services group. Label services deals through companies like PIAS and Kobalt offer bespoke record deals that are free from exclusivity, don’t force artists to relinquish their copyrights, but usually offer no advance payment upon signing (Harrison, 2014, p. 175) This enabled them to keep their copyrights and “money-spinning merchandise sales” (Musicweek, 2010), that would have been controlled by the label had they signed a 360 degree contract.

A real positive to take from the tour was that the CD stock sold out and the tee-shirts sold well which showed the groups appeal. A review from the London show at Shepherd’s Bush Empire further echoes this:

“It’s fair to say that in this circle of music, May couldn’t have picked a better support if she’d tried, with The Caezars adding way more depth than most support acts could.” (Gravelle, 2014)

Unfortunately, the CD stock selling out was also a negative side to the tour as it meant that potential revenue was lost. However, when the stock was running low, the decision was made to collect e-mail addresses for a mailing list, to keep in contact with new fans. This is because, as Herstand (2014) states; “The mailing list remains to be the best way to communicate with fans. All the contacts on your email list you own. All the likes on Facebook, followers on Twitter or Instagram you rent

The email addresses collected would then be used to try and generate sales through a direct to fan sales platform. Bandcamp (2015) is an example of a direct to fan web service that offers artists direct to consumer sales, interaction and data collection. In a 2014 article on digital music news service Hypebot.com, Emily White (2014) stated that “what Bandcamp is doing makes the most sense for fans, artists and the industry at large with regard to modern music releases“.

In a music industry where online databases are a highly prized source, it could be argued that the e-mail addresses gathered in this exercise were more important than the CD sales themselves with A&R departments increasingly looking to social media metrics on services like twitter to evaluate new talent (Pakinkis, 2014). Pledge Music’s founder Benji Rogers (2013) believes bands are failing in the way they give fans access to music; “Buy the CD, buy it on iTunes, stream it, that’s about the extent of it so that’s a terrible experience for the user, it’s a consumer experience”. The Pledge Music platform allows fans to be involved in the making and releasing of a record from day one and provides them with what he feels is a better overall experience for fans. This is an alternative to a major record label deal known as “crowd funding” (Baskerville & Baskerville, 2013, p. 411). However, Berger (2013) believes that crowd funding schemes suffer difficulties “without a very consistent fanbase, a serious work team and a strong marketing and media broadcasting basis, things won’t get very far.”

Doing the same tour again

Because of a lack of funds, there was no tour manager for the band, no road crew and no sound or light engineer. The band had only the services of the trainee sound and light engineer that was part of the headline acts touring team. This was apparent when reading some of the reviews of the shows posted online at Ticketmaster (2015) such as; “support act was good I think but the sound quality was poor, maybe too loud or levels not right sort of ruined it” (10ccfans, 2014). Darren Smith (2015), sound engineer of Imagine Dragons and other acts says that “the best performances are when a sound engineer knows the music, and can almost be a fifth or sixth member of the band”.

Although recorded music sales are continuing to fall, one of the most important things a band can have whilst supporting a more successful artist is a physical copy of their music to sell at the shows. Information is Beautiful (2015) found that the average artists needs to sell just 105 self-distributed CDs at shows to earn the US minimum wage, compared to 457 when signed to a record label under a traditional label deal.

The biggest mistake the band made on the tour was not having a new product out in time to sell on the road. Although current CD sold well, a new single or EP would have generated more coverage combined with the live show. This would have to be rectified before embarking on a similar tour in the future, in order to maximise the potential reach the gigs give the act.

Reference List

10ccfans (2014) 10ccfans’s Contributions. Available at: http://reviews.ticketmaster.co.uk/7171-en_gb/172427849/profile.htm (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Baker, T. (2013) ‘Free Crisps and Water: on the support act trail with Neighbourhood’. Interview with Tom Baker. Interview by Michael Hann for The Guardian, 10th March. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/mar/10/neighbourhood-support-act-trail (Accessed: 28/01/15).

Bandcamp (2015) Bandcamp for artists. Available at: http://bandcamp.com/artists (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Beatnik Emporium (2015) The Beatnik Emporium Available at: http://www.beatnikemporium.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Bob Log III (2015) Gigs Available at: www.boblog111.com (Accessed: 29/01/15).

BPI (2015) Certified Awards – Search by Parameter. Available at: http://www.bpi.co.uk/certified-awards/search.aspx (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Bylin, K (2010) PledgeMusic starts record label, signs first band. Available at: http://www.hypebot.com/hypebot/2010/12/pledgemusic-starts-record-label-signs-first-band.html (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Costa M (2011) Imelda May: Don’t Step on my Red Suede Shows. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/music/2011/feb/03/imelda-may-rockabilly-revival (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Fabbri, F. (1980) ‘A Theory Of Music Genres: Two Applications’, The First International Conference On Popular Music Studies, Amsterdam, 1980. Goteberg and Exeter Publishing. Available at: http://www.tagg.org/xpdfs/ffabbri81a.pdf (Accessed: 11/04/15).

Facebook (2015) Loot Clothing Brighton. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Loot-Clothing/173342206024019 (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Facebook (2015) The Vintage Collection Available at: https://www.facebook.com/thevintagecollectionlondon?fref=ts (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Gravelle, A (2014) Imelda May @ Shepherd’s Bush London 24/11/14. Available at: http://decibelleuk.com/live-reviews/imelda-may-shepherds-bush-empire-london-24112014/(Accessed: 31/01/15).

Harrison, A. (2014) Music: the Business: Fully Revised and Updated, Including the Latest Changes to Copyright Law. United Kingdom: Virgin Books.

Houghton, B. (2014) Don’t Ignore your e-mail list says fan engagement expert. Available at: http://www.hypebot.com/hypebot/2014/05/dont-ignore-your-email-list-say-fan-engagement-experts.html (Accessed: 23/04/15).

Horn, L. (2014) How Soundcloud Changed Music Forever. Available at: http://gizmodo.com/how-soundcloud-changed-music-forever-1588811594 (Accessed: 23/04/15).

Hultsfred Hayride (2015) Hultsfred Hayride. Available at: http://www.hayride.se/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

IFPI (2015) ‘IFPI Digital Music Report 2015”. Available at: http://www.ifpi.com/downloads/Digital-Music-Report-2015.pdf (Accessed: 14/04/15).

Imelda May (2015) Imelda May. Available at: http://imeldamay.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Information Is Beautiful (2015) Selling Out How Much Do Music Artists Earn Online. Available at: http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/how-much-do-music-artists-earn-online-2015-remix/ (Accessed: 16/04/15).

Kiernen, K. (2014) ‘The Great Escape 2014: Building a Fan Business’ [Lecture to The Great Escape Festival, Brighton, 2014]. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/cmu/tge2014-building-a-fan-business-kevin-kiernan (Accessed: 24/04/2015).

Lindevall, H. (2008) Counting The Cost Of Touring. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/music/musicblog/2008/jun/11/costoftouring(Accessed: 31/01/15).

Mixcloud (2015) Steve Stack Of Wax. Available at: https://www.mixcloud.com/stevestackofwax/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Musicweek (2010) Band Guns Down the airplay delay. Available at: http://www.musicweek.com/news/read/band-guns-down-the-airplay-delay/042283 (Accessed: 29/01/15).

No Hit Records (2015) Sounds That Swing Available at: http://www.nohitrecords.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

O2 (2015) O2 Academy Venues. Available at: http://www.o2.co.uk/abouto2/sponsorship/o2-academy-venues (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Offical Charts Company (2015) Offical Albums Chart Results Matching Annabel Dream Reader Available at: http://www.officialcharts.com/search/albums/ANNABEL%20DREAM%20READER/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Pakinkis, T. (2014) Lyor Cohen’s 300 Partners with Twitter. Available at: http://www.musicweek.com/news/read/lyor-cohen-s-300-partners-with-twitter/057495 (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Pie & Vinyl (2015) Pie & Vinyl Available at: http://www.pieandvinyl.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Pledge Music (2015) Why Pledge Music?. Available at: https://www.pledgemusic.com/artists/sign_up (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Radio Reverb (2015) Frockabilly Available at: http://www.radioreverb.com/shows/Frockabilly (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Reynolds, A. (2012) The tour book: how to get your music on the road. 2nd edn. Boston, MA: Delmar Cengage Learning.

Rockabilly Duke Box (2015) Get On The Right Track Available at: http://rockabillydukebox.blogspot.co.uk/2015/02/get-on-right-track.html (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Rockabilly Rave (2015) The Rockabilly Rave. Available at: http://www.rockabillyrave.co.uk/index.html(Accessed: 29/01/15).

Rogers, B. (2013) ‘Benji Rogers from Pledge Music @ Austin Tech Talk SXSW 2013’. Interview with Benji Rogers. Interview by David Hayes for Austin Tech Talk, 12th March. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQUDDumyawM (Accessed: 15/04/15).

Smith, D (2015) ‘A Sound Engineers Perspective’. Interview with Darren Smith. Interview by Ken Garff for Ken Garff Automotive Group, 22nd March. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3vH-5w47qM(Accessed: 28/03/15).

The Caezars (2015) The Caezars.com. Available at: http://www.thecaezars.com/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

The Wave Pictures (2015) Gigs Available at: http://thewavepictures.com/webpages/gigs.htm(Accessed: 29/01/15).

The Wytches (2015) Wytches Available at: http://www.thewytches.com/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Ticketmaster (2015) Ticketmaster. Available at: http://www.ticketmaster.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Viva Las Vegas (2015) Viva Las Vegas. Available at: http://www.vivalasvegas.net/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

Vinyl Tap (2015) The Vinyl Tap Available at: https://www.vinyltap.co.uk/ (Accessed: 29/01/15).

White, E. (2014) Why (not) Bandcamp. Available at: http://hypebot.com/hypebot/2014/11/why-not-bandcamp.html (Accessed: 31/01/15).

Zimbalam (2015) Distribution Available at: http://www.zimbalam.co.uk/distribution (Accessed: 29/01/15).